The British invasion of Maryland, (1812-1815):
"On the 16th of April the fleet threatened the City of Baltimore, and while it lay off the city, preparations for defense were carried forward with great activity...".
"The militia, under the command of General Samuel Smith, erected a water-battery mounted with 42-pounders, and built furnaces for heating shot. Signal boats were established down the Patapsco, while cavalry, infantry and artillery were stationed along the shores of the river and bay with a code of signals. Fort McHenry was strengthened under the direction of Colonel Wadsworth of the United States Engineers, and a number of old hulks were stationed in the river for the purpose of being sunk in the channel if necessary. The works known as the six gun battery were thrown up by brickmakers without charge."